# January 2023

## Basic Counting Principles

Sum Rule Principle Suppose that an event E can occur in m ways and a second event F can occur in n ways and suppose both events cannot occur simultaneously. Then E or F can occur in m+n ways. Example – If 5 male professors and 8 female professors teach Maths then the students can …

## Logical Equivalent

Two logical statements p and q are said to be logical equivalents. It is denoted by p≡q when if p⇔q is a tautology. Note: Do not write p = q; instead write p ≡ q. Note: It doesn’t mean that p and q are equal. Since p and q are different statements, they cannot be the …

Tautologies A proposition p is a tautology when it is true in all situations. P tautology contains only the True in the field of the column of its truth table. Example: (p⟶q) ↔(∼q⟶∼p) is a tautology p q p⟶q ~p ~q ~q⟶~p (p⟶q) ↔(∼q⟶∼p) T T T F F T T T F F F …

## Logical Operations

Negation Negation means the opposite of the original statement. If p is the statement, then the negation of p will be denoted by ~p and read as “It is not the case that p”. So if p is true then ~p will be false and vice versa. Example – If the statement p is “New …

## Proposition and Compound Proposition

A proposition or a statement or a logical sentence is a declarative sentence that can be either true or false. Example of Propositions Example of Non-Propositions Propositional Variable The lowercase letters starting with P are used to represent the proposition. Example p: Mahatma Gandhi is the father of India. q: 2+2 = 4 Compound Propositions …

## Operators

Operators are used to performing operations on variables and values. In C language, There are the following types of operators: Arithmetic Operators Arithmetic Operators are used to doing mathematical calculations. Operator Name Meaning Example + Addition Adds 2 values x+y – Subtraction Substracts one value from another value x-y * Multiplication Multiplies two values x*y …

## Research Definition

Research is creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge. Or Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the …

## Data Type Conversions

Data Type conversion is the process of converting one data type to another data type. This process is performed only on those data types in which conversion is possible. Data type conversion is performed by a compiler. In type conversion, the destination data type can’t be smaller than the source data type. Data type conversion …

## Computer Network

A computer network is a group of computers connected to each other through a medium like wires, optical fiber, or any wireless medium so that these computers can interact with each other through a network. The ambition of computer networks is to share resources and information with each other. Uses of computer networks Resource Sharing …

## Data Types in C

A data type specifies the type of data or value that a variable can store such as integer, floating, character, double, etc. Data types in C There are four types of data type in C language: The basic data types are integer-based and floating-point based. C language supports signed and unsigned both literals. The size …

## Keywords in C

A keyword is a reserved word. you cannot use it as an identifier (variable name, constant name, function name, etc.). There are only 32 keywords that are reserved in the programming language C. Here is the list of 32 keywords of the C language:

## Identifiers in C

Identifiers in C language represent the name in the C programming language, for example, the name of the variable, the name of the function, the name of the array, the name of the structure, the name of unions, the name of labels, etc. An Identifier can be a combination of alphanumerical characters that should be …

## Pseudo Code

A Pseudo Code is an informal way of writing the steps that should be followed for writing a program for human understanding. It should be just written in the English language to make the complex program easy to understand. For graphical representation, we use the alternative of pseudo-code which is Flow Charts. An algorithm for …

## Flow Charts

Flow charts are the most widely used graphical representation of an algorithm and procedural design workflows. It uses various symbols and shapes like rectangles, ovals, circles, etc. to show the operations and decisions to be followed in a program. Flow chart flows in sequential(step-by-step) order. Types of flow charts Rules of flow charts Flow chart …

## Database Management System

The database management system is a system software to create and manage databases. Examples of DBMS are MySQL, Oracle, MS SQL, etc. Features of Database Management System Characteristics of DBMS Advantages of DBMS Disadvantages of DBMS Read Next – Database System vs File System

## Database System vs File System

File System The file system basically means storing and accessing a file in a medium like a hard disk in a proper way. The file system helps you to arrange the files and retrieve them when they are required. The file system can group files in a directory and the directories can also group directories …

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