The file system basically means storing and accessing a file in a medium like a hard disk in a proper way. The file system helps you to arrange the files and retrieve them when they are required. The file system can group files in a directory and the directories can also group directories and files. The file system gives you the power to create files, delete files, retrieve files, update files, rename files, and change the permission of files. Examples: NTFS (used in Windows OS), FAT16, FAT32, EXT (used in Linux OS), etc.
The Database System helps you to store and manage the related data. It is used to store and access data effectively when it is needed. It provides better security to data from unauthorized access. The database system lets you access the data remotely too. And provides a good backup and recovery mechanism to you. Examples: Oracle, MySQL, MS SQL, etc.
Difference between Database System and File System
|Basis||File System||Database System|
|Structure||A file system is a software that helps you to store and retrieve files to a medium like HDD, Pen Drive, etc.||Database System is software that helps you to store and retrieve data in an effective way.|
|Redundancy||In a file system, data redundancy can happen.||In a database system, there is no redundancy|
|Backup and Recovery||The file system doesn’t provide an inbuilt feature for the backup and recovery of your files. You need extra software for this.||It provides a good inbuilt feature for the backup and recovery of your files. You don’t need any extra software for this.|
|Sharing||Data sharing is not easy for File Systems, because the data is distributed in many files and folders and they don’t have any structure (they aren’t related data).||Data sharing is easy for a Database System because it is centralized, all are related data, and have a structure.|
|Consistency||Data consistency is less in the file system.||The database system has more data consistency because of its process of normalization|
|Complexity||The file system is less complex in comparison to the database system.||The database system is more complex in comparison to the file system.|
|Security||The file system is less secure in comparison to the database system. You need extra software for this.||The database system is more secure in comparison to the file system. It has an inbuilt security management system.|
|Cost||The file system is very cheap in comparison to the database system.||The database system is more costly in comparison to the file system.|
|Integrity Constraints||The file system doesn’t have any integrity constraints feature.||Integrity constraints features are available in the database system and can be implemented easily.|
|Data access||Only one user can access a file at a time. Multiple users can’t access it simultaneously.||Multiple users can access the data at a time simultaneously.|
|Abstraction||The file system doesn’t hide anything and gives full details of storage and data.||The database system hides the internal details of the database from the user.|
|Examples||NTFS, FAT32, EXT||MySQL, Oracle, MS SQL|