How does the Internet actually work?

How does the Internet actually work?

In this post, we will know how does the Internet actually works? Because this is a thing that we use every single day.

Hey guys, This is Bhanu Stark. And this is the second post of full-stack web development course.

So, before developing any website or web app, we need to know that how does the Internet actually works?

A lot of people think, "there are satellites in the sky and they make the Internet work. And it's so complicated to understand".

But this is not true.

Internet is a simple thing.

There are a lot of long wires they are connected to many computers (servers) together for data sharing.

Internet Cables

So if you have a computer in London and the second computer is in New Delhi and both are sharing data with each other (or one-sided sharing), So this happens because of these long wires.

And this connection is called the Internet connection.

What are servers and clients?

Some of the computers are online 24x7, who are always ready to share data and files online.

Whenever you try to access any website online, these computers share with you the data and files they have for you. After that, you are able to see the data or information of that website.

So these type of computer, who provides data or information to you, is called Server.
And which computers are used to access the data from servers then these computers are called Client.

You can think that a web server is a huge library, which is open 24x7. Where you can go any time of a day and you can read any of book that library has.

For example:

If I want to open Google.com on my PC or I want to read news on AajTak.com then these website's servers will share the their data and information, so that I can see the data (or I can see the news). Which data my computer requested to see.

You might be thinking that there are a lot of websites on the Internet in this world. And the website I want to open opens very soon. How does this happen?

And on the other side, if I have to find a file in my computer, then it takes a lot of time.

How does the internet solve this problem after all?

Well, you think that you are at your home and you are using your PC.
And then you are typing Google.com and you are open the homepage of Google.

In between, you are typing Google.com and your browser showing homepage of Google, there are a lot of things that happened:

  1. Firstly you typed google.com in your browser of your PC.
  2. Then your browser sends a message to your ISP (Internet Service Providers) that you want to open the google.com website.
  3. After that, your ISP will send a message to the DNS server (Domain Name System Server). DNS server contains every website's IP address.
  4. Then DNS server will check google.com's IP address in its database.
  5. Then DNS server sends the IP address of google.com to your ISP.
  6. Then your ISP sends it back to your browser.
  7. Now your browser is knowing the IP address of google.com.
  8. Then the browser will request your ISP to access that IP address on HTTP protocol.
  9. Then your ISP requests to get the data to the Internet backbone from that IP address. (Internet backbone is basically the backbone of the Internet. In short it manages all the IP addresses and Servers.)
  10. Now the Internet backbone will request the data from that IP's computer. (That IP's computer will be called Google Server.)
  11. The Google Server will send the data to the Internet backbone to your ISP.
  12. Then your ISP will send that data to your web browser.
  13. Finally, your web browser will show that data to you and you will be able to see Google's homepage.
You can see that there are a lot steps between requesting and getting response from server. And sometime hackers hack the data in the middle of these steps.

But this long process takes only some milliseconds to be done.

Now you can understand, how your data rounding across the world.

Now you may be thinking that:

can I access google directly by its IP address?

Yes, you can. Try to open the 172.217.14.78 IP address in your web browser. You will see Google's homepage.

What is the Internet backbone?

As you saw the use of the usage of the Internet backbone. You can understand that there are long wires and data routes between the interconnected computer networks.

Nowadays Internet backbone uses fiber optics connection to increase the speed of the Internet.

What is ISP (Internet Service Providers)?

ISP is an Internet Service Provider like in India, you can see JIO, Airtel and VI is the ISP. Who provides the Internet service to people and users.

Who gives you the Internet connection to your wi-fi or router or to your computer is an ISP.

Elon musk is creating Star-link to provide high speed internet to users, then the ISP will be Star-link.

What is a DNS server?

DNS server's full form is Domain Name System server. This is a server that has a database and this server knows which domain name is assigned to which IP address.

For example:

It's hard to remember every server's IP address like if I want to open google, I need to remember its IP address or if I need to open Microsoft's website then I need to remember Microsoft's server IP address and they are in number form.

It will be so hard so that the DNS server makes it easy.

Because of Domain Name System, we don't need to remember the IP address of every single website. We can just remember the domain name of that website.

Then instead of typing 172.217.14.78, we can type google.com in our web browser and Google's homepage will be opened.

What is a Domain name?

The domain name is an alphabet name that is used to assign to the IP address of any server. After assigning the domain name to any IP address, we don't need to remember the IP address of that server.

We can use domain name at the place of IP address.
As you know IP address is unique to every internet connection. The domain names are also specific on the internet.

Watch the video of this post

I hope, you understood that How does the Internet work.

Comment down if you have any questions or suggestions for this post.